A velouté sauce (French pronunciation: [volute]) is a savory sauce, made from a roux and a light stock i.e. one in which the bones used have not been previously roasted. The term velouté is the French word for velvety.
In preparing a velouté sauce, a light stock, such as chicken or fish stock, is thickened with a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts (by mass) of butter and flour to form the roux and a light chicken or fish stock, with some salt and pepper to season as needed. The sauce produced is commonly referred to by the type of stock used e.g. chicken velouté.
Do not use milk and the roux may be allowed to become blond. Those are the two things that distinguish velouté from béchamel. Use meat, seafood, and/or vegetable stock in any combination that you like.
Sauce velouté = chicken velouté is one of five 'mother' sauces and is used as the base for many other sauces. Velouté comes in different colors, depending on the broth used and other added ingredients.
Pic1-3: three different colored velouté sauces
Wikipedia: A few of the sauces derived from a velouté sauce:
- Albufera sauce: add meat glaze, or glace de viande.
- Allemande sauce: add a few drops of lemon juice, egg yolks, and cream
- Aurore: add tomato purée
- Bercy: add shallots, white wine, lemon juice and parsley to a fish velouté
- Gravy: made with meat and/or vegetable drippings instead of a separate stock.
- Hungarian: add onion, paprika, white wine.
- Normande sauce: prepared with velouté or fish velouté, cream, butter and egg yolk as primary ingredients. Some versions may use mushroom liquor, oyster juice or fish fumet added to fish velouté, finished with a liaison of egg yolks and cream
- Poulette: Mushrooms finished with chopped parsley and lemon juice
- Sauce a la Polonaise ("Polish style"): sauce velouté mixed with horseradish, lemon juice and sour cream.
- Sauce ravigote: The addition of a little lemon or white wine vinegar creates a lightly acidic velouté that is traditionally flavored with onions and shallots, and more recently with mustard.
- Sauce Vin Blanc: add fish trim, egg yolks and butter; typically served with fish.
- Suprême sauce: add a reduction of mushroom liquor (produced in cooking) and cream to a chicken velouté.
- Venetian sauce: Tarragon, shallots, chervil
- Wine sauce: such as white wine sauce and champagne sauce.
Pic4: there's a few more here.
Take note of the secondary sauces, which in their turn have many derived sauces.